The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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To clumsy cruelty, scientific skill was added.
"Undesirables" were exterminated by injection of drugs into
the bloodstream, by asphyxiation in gas chambers. They were
shot with poison bullets, to study the effects (L-103);

Then, to cruel experiments the Nazi added obscene ones.
These were not the work of underling-degenerates, but of
master-minds high in the Nazi conspiracy. On 20th May, 1942,
General Field Marshal Milch authorised S.S. General Wolff to
go ahead at Dachau Camp with so-called "cold experiments";
and four female gypsies were selected for the purpose.
Himmler gave permission to carry on these "experiments" also
in other camps (1617-PS). At Dachau, the reports of the
"doctor" in charge show that victims were immersed in cold
water until their body temperature was reduced to 26 degrees
centigrade (8.24 degrees Fahrenheit) when they all died
immediately. (1618-PS.) This was in August,

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1942. But the "doctor's" technique improved. By February,
1943, he was able to report that thirty persons were chilled
to 27 to 29 degrees, their hands and feet frozen white, and
their bodies "rewarmed" by a hot bath. But the Nazi
scientific triumph was "rewarming with animal heat." The
victim, all but frozen to death, was surrounded with the
bodies of living women until he revived and responded to his
environment by having sexual intercourse. (1616-PS.) Here
Nazi degeneracy reached its nadir.

I dislike to encumber the record with such morbid tales, but
we are in the grim business of trying men as criminals, and
these are the things that their own agents say happened. We
will show you these concentration camps in motion pictures.
just as the Allied armies found them when they arrived, and
the measures General Eisenhower had to take to clean them
up. Our proof will be disgusting and you will say I have
robbed you of your sleep. But these are the things which
have turned the stomach of the world and set every civilised
hand against Nazi Germany.

Germany became one vast torture chamber. Cries of its
victims were heard round the world and brought shudders to
civilised people everywhere. I am one who received during
this war most atrocity tales with suspicion and scepticism.
But the proof here will be so overwhelming that I venture to
predict not one word I have spoken will be denied. These
defendants will only deny personal responsibility or

Under the clutch of the most intricate web of espionage and
intrigue that any modern State has endured, and persecution
and torture of a kind that has not been visited upon the
world in many centuries, the elements of the German
population which were both decent and courageous were
annihilated. Those which were decent but weak were
intimidated. Open resistance, which had never been more than
feeble and irresolute, disappeared. But resistance, I am
happy to say, always remained, although it was manifest in
only such events as the abortive effort to assassinate
Hitler on 20th July, 1944. With resistance driven
underground, the Nazi had the German State in his own hands.

But the Nazis not only silenced discordant voices. They
created positive controls as effective as their negative
case. Propaganda organs, on a scale never before known,
stimulated the party and party formations with a permanent
enthusiasm and abandon such as we, democratic people, can
work up only for a few days before a general election. They
inculcated and practised the Fuehrer-prinzip which
centralised control of the Party and of the Party-controlled
State over the lives and thought of the German people, who
are accustomed to look upon the German State, by whomever
controlled, with a mysticism that is incomprehensible to my

All these controls, from their inception were exerted with
unparalleled energy and single-mindedness to put Germany on
a war footing. We will show from the Nazis' own documents
their secret training of military personnel, their secret
creation of a military air force. Finally, a conscript army
was brought into being. Financiers, economists,
industrialists, joined in the plan and promoted elaborate
alterations in industry and finance to support an
unprecedented concentration of resources and energies upon
preparations for war. Germany's rearmament so outstripped
the strength of her neighbours that in about a year she was
able to crush the whole military force of Continental
Europe, exclusive of that of Soviet Russia, and then to push
the Russian armies back to the Volga. These preparations
were of a magnitude which surpassed all need of defence, and
every defendant, and every intelligent German, well
understood them to be for aggressive purposes.

Before resorting to open aggressive warfare, the Nazis
undertook some rather cautious experiments to test the
spirit of resistance of those who lay across their path.
They advanced, but only as others yielded, and kept in a
position to draw back if they found a temperament that made
persistence dangerous.

On 7th March, 1936, the Nazis reoccupied the Rhineland and
then proceeded

                                                   [Page 71]

to fortify it in violation of the Treaty of Versailles and
the Pact of Locarno. They encountered no substantial
resistance and were emboldened to take the next step, which
was the acquisition of Austria. Despite repeated assurances
that Germany had no designs on Austria, invasion was
perfected. Threat of attack forced Schuschnigg to resign as
Chancellor of Austria and put the Nazi defendant Seyss-
Inquart in his place. The latter immediately opened the
frontier and invited Hitler to invade Austria "to preserve
order". On 12th March the invasion began. The next day,
Hitler proclaimed himself Chief of the Austrian State, took
command of its armed forces, and a law was enacted annexing
Austria to Germany.

Threats of aggression had succeeded without arousing
resistance. Fears nevertheless had been stirred. They were
lulled by an assurance to the Czechoslovak Government that
there would be no attack on that country. We will show that
the Nazi Government already had detailed plans for the
attack. We will lay before you the documents in which those
conspirators planned to create an incident to justify their
attack. They even gave consideration to assassinating their
own Ambassador at Prague in order to create a sufficiently
dramatic incident. They did precipitate a diplomatic crisis
which endured throughout the summer. Hitler set 30th
September as the day when troops should be ready for action.
Under the threat of immediate war, the United Kingdom and
France concluded a pact with Germany and Italy at Munich on
29th September, 1938, which required Czechoslovakia to
acquiesce in the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany. It
was consummated by German occupation on 1st October, 1938.

The Munich Pact pledged no further aggression against
Czechoslovakia, but the Nazi pledge was lightly given and
quickly broken. On 15th March, 1939, in defiance of the
Treaty of Munich itself, the Nazis seized and occupied
Bohemia and Moravia, which constituted the major part of
Czechoslovakia not already ceded to Germany. Once again the
West stood aghast, but it dreaded war, it saw no remedy
except war, and it hoped against hope that the Nazi fever
for expansion had run its course. But the Nazi world was
intoxicated by these unresisted successes in open alliance
with Mussolini and in covert alliance with Franco. Then,
having made a deceitful, delaying peace with Russia, the
conspirators entered upon the final phase of the plan to
renew war.

I will not prolong this address by detailing the steps
leading to the war of aggression which began with the
invasion of Poland on 1st September, 1939. The further story
will be unfolded to you by the British Delegation from
documents including those of the German High Command itself.
The plans had been laid long in advance. As early as 1935
Hitler appointed the defendant Schacht to the position of
"General Deputy for the War Economy." (2261-PS) We have the
diary of General Jodl (1780-PS); the "Plan Otto," Hitler's
own order for attack on Austria in case trickery failed (C-
102); the "Plan Green" which was the blueprint for attack on
Czechoslovakia (338-PS); the plan for the War in the West
(376-PS, 375-PS); Funk's letter to Hitler dated 25th August,
1939, detailing the long course of economic preparation for
war (699-PS); Keitel's top-secret mobilisation order for
1939-40 prescribing steps to be taken during a "period of
tension," as it was described, during which no "'state of
war' will be publicly declared even if open war measures
against the enemy will be taken." This latter order (1699-
PS) is in our possession despite a secret order issued on
16th March, 1945, when Allied troops were advancing into the
heart of Germany, to burn these plans. We have also Hitler's
directive, dated 18th December, 1940, for the "Barbarossa
Contingency," which was a code name, outlining the strategy
of the attack on Russia. That plan, in the original, bears
the initials of the defendants Keitel and Jodl. They were
planning the attack and planning it long in advance of the
declaration of war. We have detailed information concerning
the "Case White," the plan for attack on Poland (2327-PS).
That attack began the war. The plan was issued by Keitel on
3rd April, 1939. The attack did not come until September.
Steps in preparation for the attack were

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taken by subordinate commanders, one of whom issued an order
on 14th June providing that:-

  "The Commander-in-Chief of the Armies has ordered the
  working out of a plan of deployment against Poland which
  takes in account the demands of political leadership for
  the opening of the war by surprise and for quick
  successes.. I declare it the duty of the Commanding
  Generals, the Divisional Commanders, and the Commandants
  to limit as much as possible the number of persons who
  will be informed, and to limit the extent of the
  information, and ask that all suitable measures be taken
  to prevent persons not concerned from getting
  The operation, in order to forestall an orderly Polish
  mobilisation and concentration, is to be opened by
  surprise with forces which are for the most part armoured
  and motorised, placed on alert in the neighbourhood of
  the border.  The initial superiority over the Polish
  frontier-guards and surprise that can be expected with
  certainty are to be maintained by quickly bringing up
  other parts of the army as well to counteract the
  marching up of the Polish Army..
  If the development of the political situation should show
  that a surprise at the beginning of the war is out of
  question, because of well-advanced defence preparations
  on the part of the Polish Army, the Commander-in-Chief of
  the Army will order the opening of the hostilities only
  after the assembling of sufficient additional forces The
  basis of all preparations will be to surprise the

We also have the order for the attack on England, initialled
again by Keitel and Jodl. It is interesting that it
commences with a recognition that although the  British
military position is "hopeless," they show not the slightest
sign of giving in. (442-PS)

Not the least incriminating are the minutes of Hitler's
meeting with his high advisers.

As early as 5th November, 1937, Hitler told defendants
Goering, Raeder, and Neurath, among others, that German
rearmament was practically accomplished and that he had
decided to secure by force, starting with a lightening
attack on Czechoslovakia and Austria, greater living space
for Germans in Europe no later that 1943-5 and perhaps as
early as 1938. (368-PS) On the 23rd May, 1939, the Fuehrer
advised his staff that:

   "It is a question of expanding our living space in the
   East and of securing our food supplies . over and above
   the natural fertility, thoroughgoing German exploitation
   will enormously increase the surplus.
   There is therefore no question of sparing Poland, and we
   are left with the decision:
   To attack Poland at the first suitable opportunity.
   We cannot expect a repetition of the Czech affair. There
   will be war." (L-79)

On 22nd August, 1939, Hitler again addressed members of the
High Command, telling them when the start of military
operations would be ordered. He disclosed that for
propaganda purposes, he would provocate a good reason. "It
will make no difference," he announced, "whether this reason
will sound convincing or not. After all, the victor will not
be asked whether he talked the truth or not. We have to
proceed brutally. The stronger is always right." (1014-PS)
On 23rd November, 1939, after the Germans had invaded
Poland, Hitler made this explanation: "For the first time in
history we have to fight on only one front. The other front
is at present free, but no one can know how long that will
remain so. I have doubted for a long time whether I would
strike in the East and then in the West. Basically, I did
not organise the armed forces in order not to strike. The
decision to strike was always in me. Earlier or later I
wanted to solve the problem. Under pressure it was decided
that the East was to be attacked first." (789-PS)

We know the bloody sequel. Frontier incidents were staged.
Demands were

                                                   [Page 73]

made for cession of territory. When Poland refused, the
German forces invaded on 1st September, 1939. Warsaw was
destroyed; Poland fell. The Nazis, in accordance with plans,
moved swiftly to extend their aggression throughout Europe
and to gain the advantage of surprise over their unprepared
neighbours, Despite repeated and solemn assurances of
peaceful intentions, they invaded Denmark and Norway on 9th
April, 1940; Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on 10th
May, 1940, Yugoslavia and Greece on 6th April 1941.

As part of the Nazi preparation for aggression against
Poland and her allies, Germany, on 23rd April, 1939 had
entered into a non-aggression pact with Soviet Russia. It
uses only a delaying treaty intended to be kept no longer
than necessary to prepare for its violation. On 22nd June,
1941, pursuant to long matured plans, the Nazis hurled
troops into Soviet territory without any declaration of war.
The entire European world was aflame.

The Nazi plans of aggression called for use of Asiatic
allies, and they found among the Japanese men of kindred
mind and purpose. They were brothers, under the skin.

Himmler records a conversation that he had on 31st January,
1939, with General Oshima, Japanese Ambassador at Berlin. He

   Furthermore, he (Oshima) had succeeded up to now in
   sending 10 Russians with bombs across the Caucasian
   frontier. These Russians had the mission to kill Stalin.
   A number of additional Russians, whom he had also sent
   across, had been shot at the frontier." (2195-PS.)

On 27th September, 1940, the Nazis concluded a German-
Italian-Japanese ten-year military and economic alliance by
which those powers agreed "to stand by and co-operate with
one another in regard to their efforts in Greater East Asia
and regions of Europe respectively, wherein it is their
prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of

On 5th March, 1941, a top secret directive was issued by
defendant Keitel. It stated that "The Fuehrer had ordered
instigation of Japan's active participation in the war" and
directed that "Japan's military power has to be strengthened
by the disclosure of German war experiences and support of a
military, economic and technical nature has to be given."
The aim was stated to be to crush England quickly, thereby
keeping the United States out of the war. (C-75)

On 29th March, 1941, Ribbentrop told Matsuoka, the Japanese
Foreign Minister, that the German Army was ready to strike
against Russia. Matsuoka in turn reassured Ribbentrop about
the Far East. Japan, he reported, was acting at the moment
as though she had no interest whatever in Singapore, but
"intends to strike when the right moment comes." (1877-PS)
On April, 1941, Ribbentrop urged Matsuoka that entry of
Japan into the war would "hasten the victory" and would be
more in the interest of Japan than of Germany, since it
would Japan a unique chance to fulfil her national aims and
to play a leading part in Eastern Asia. (1882-PS.)

The proofs in this case will also show that the leaders of
Germany were planning war against the United States from its
Atlantic as well as instigating it from its Pacific
approaches. A captured memorandum from the Fuehrer's
headquarters, dated 29th October, 1940, asks certain
information as to air bases and reports further that:-

  The Fuehrer is at present occupied with the question of
  the occupation of the Atlantic islands with a view to the
  prosecution of war against America at a later date.
  Deliberations on this subject are being embarked upon
  here." (376-PS.)

On 7th December, 1941, a day which the late President
Roosevelt declared "will live in infamy," victory for German
aggression seemed certain. The Wehrmacht was at the gates of
Moscow. Taking advantage of the situation, and while her
plenipotentiaries were creating a diplomatic diversion in

                                                   [Page 74]

Japan without declaration of war treacherously attacked the
United States at Pearl Harbour and the Philippines. Attacks
followed swiftly on the British Commonwealth and The
Netherlands in the South-west Pacific. These aggressions met
in the only way that they could be met, with instant
declarations of war and with armed resistance which mounted
slowly through many long months of reverse until finally the
Axis was crushed to earth and deliverance for its victims
was won.

Your Honour, I am about to take up "Crimes in the Conduct of
War," which is quite a separate subject. We are within five
minutes of the recessing time. It will be very convenient
for me it if will be agreeable to you.

THE PRESIDENT: We will sit again in 15 minutes' time,

(A recess was taken.)

THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal must request that if it adjourns
for I5 minutes, that members of the bar and others are back
in their seats after an interval of 15 minutes. Mr. Justice
Jackson, I understand that you wish to continue to 5.15,
when you may be able to conclude your speech?

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: I think that would be the most orderly

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, the Tribunal will be glad to do so.

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: May it please your Honour, I will now
take up the subject of "Crimes in the Conduct of War."

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